Units - Overview

This document describes the use of units within Civil. It describes the different stats available to units as well as the different unit types.

Revision History
  v0.1 — First conversion from the SGML source. Mostly complete.
  v0.2 — Converted to new format, misc changes.

Types of units

A few different types of units will be available in the game. They are very different and all types must be successfully utilized in order to win a game. The various types are listed below. Apart from only "primitive" types there are also the normal military organizations (See "Organisations") such as regiments, brigades etc.


This is the base unit of all armies. Without infantry you wouldn't be able to do much anything. Infantry units move by foot and are thus quite slow when compared to cavalry. The marching speed can be increased by arranging the infantry units in a column mode, which will increase marching speed, but decrease combat efficiency. Infantry is often quite vulnerable qithout good protective artillery-fire when attacking.


The artillery unittype works as a support unit and provides artillery-fire at selected locations. Artillery-units may attack from long ranges and still inflict considerable damage upon their target. Successful attacks often require a combination of artillery-fire and an actual attacker. Artillery can be devastating when defending against assaulting close-range units, or it may totally fail. Being under heavy artillery attackis reduces the morale of the target unit.

If artillery gets overrun by an attacker the outcome is usually disaster for the artillery. Keep them out of range of enemy assaulting units, or provide some infantry support. Artillery has a suppressing factor for the target as well as lowering the morale if the fire is effective. Attacking artillery from the flank is usually very effective, as it always takes some time (sometimes considerable) for the gun crews to change the facing of the guns in order to be able to fire upon a flanking enemy.

Artillery may only move when limbered. Short distances may be moved by hand, but this is very expensive when considering movement-points. Unlimbere artillery keeps the horses and other supplies behing the main line of the guns. When artillery is limbered the guns are mounted to special horsedrawn carriers, and can then be moved at the pace of infantry. Before the artilery may fire it must again be unlimbered and setup for combat. Limbered artillery is very vulnerable for attacks, as it is basically a very weak infantry-unit without its guns. It is very difficult to do a frontal attack on unlimbered and prepared artillery, and the morale of the attackers will often not suffice. Doing a flank attack on artillery is thus easier and will normally give better results.


The cavalry is the most mobile unit, as they are horsemounted. Cavalry is best used when attacking, especially for flanking manouvres. Due to the use of horses cavalry has the best movement speed, especielly when charging. Defending infantry may rout when being charged by cavalry, especially if morale or experience is very low.


This unit could be included if some more detail is desired. Each company, regiment, brigade and division could have its own headquarters. They would be there as links between the units, like some kind of coordinators. Destroying/disordering a headquarter would also affect the troops commanded by the HQ.

In Civil headquarters are modelled by having some normal units "contain" the headquarter unit. When the unit suffers casualities there is always a chance of the actual commander being wounded or killed. In this case another leader is appointed from the same unit.


All units have some stats that affect their combat strength. Units might otherwise be strong but failing seriously in an important stat might make the unit quite useless. For instance it's no good having a strong brigade of infantry which has no fighting morale at all, and who routes for every single battle.


The strength of the unit is basically the number of men that are ready for combat. originally the unit has all men ready for battle, but combat of various types will wound and kill men. The strength is a percentage-modifier for the basic damage that the unit may inflict, i.e. if 20% are killed and 5% are wounded the unit fights at a 75% strength. Resting units may transform some men from wounded to ready, and being out of combat may also do the same.


The morale of a unit directly reflects its willingness to fight and what it does when it takes casualities. Morale is always reduced when a unit takes casualities, retreats or otherwise has a bad day. It can also be decresed when other units that are visible take heavy casualities. It is increased after successful combat, i.e. when the unit manages to inflict damage on the enemy. It can also be increased when a neighbor does a 'good fight'. Morale is thus a stat that can be spread out among units like a disease if bad battles are fought. The rallying skills of leaders are important when trying to keep the men in line.

The possible values are:

Morale when attacking

A unit that attacks another has a higher propability of breaking the attack if it has a low morale. They don't like the casualitites that they get and want to withdraw and break the attack. A really bad morale might send the attacking unit fleeing if the defenders stand firm or losses are taken. Good morale keeps the unit fighting longer, and it can even resist some casualities without halting the attack. A unit with high morale is usually one that has the best chances of doing real damange to defenders. In combination with a skilled and aggressive leader the ingredients for decisive victories are at hand.

Morale when defending

Units with bad morale are more likely to retreat when attacked, and when retreating they are more likely to rout. Units with strong morale will normally keep their lines together when forced to retreat, and rather withdraw than retreat, and retreat rather the rout.


Units gain fatigue when they do anything except rest! Every move they make will give them some fatigue, and battle is quite tiring. The units will lose fatigue by resting, i.e. doing nothing. It is wise to not drive the units too hard for too long, as constantly being fatigued and in battle will seriously effect morale. Switch the units in the front-line if possible and let units who've taken a beating rest behind the lines for a while.

The possible values are:

Combat skill

The combat skill of a unit is a direct modifier as to how good the unit fares in battle. A good unit is more likely to withstand heavy attacks without too high casualities, while a skilled attacker has a higher chance of breaking through and achieving decisive victories. For artillery skill is the most important stat, especially when firing from a distance, as it directly determines the chance of hitting the target.

This modifier also affects the melee skill of a unit and directly modifies how good the unit is when it comes to close combat. Melees are the result of assaults where the defender and attacker engage in hand-to-hand combat, and neither has retreated.

The possible values are:


Each unit has one immediate leader and any number of leaders above that. The immediate leader is the one that has most influence over what the unit does, and is thus most responsible for outcomes of battles. A leader has a few important stats that very much influence the outcome of battles.

Battle Skill

A leader with a low skill is bound to do bad decisions, while a skilled leader may do extraordinary good decisions when needed. The skill is important when doing anything! It's very important when doing assaults, attacks or other actions that may have big changes. Skill directly modifies all results. The battle skill is more or less the skill taught to the leader in military school, i.e. theory. The practical knowledge is experience. Together these directly modifies what a leader is capable of doing.

The possible values are:

Rally Skill

This skill is used by leaders when they try to keep the 'spirits high' and avoid having the unit retreat under battle. It also reflects the leader's ability to rally the troops after a retreat and again create a unit ready for fighting. When the unit takes casualities this stat is very important.

The possible values are:


All leaders have more or less battle experience which influences the descicions made in battle. A leader may have bad battle skill, but has fought many battles and built up much experience, which means that in order to be a successful leader experience is often quite sufficient. A leader with good battle skill and experience is often quite unbeatable.

The possible values are:


A leader has a special personla style which influences the way the troops are led. An aggressive leader has a much higher chance of doing radical stuff, such as assaults and pursuits when enemies have failed and are retreating/routing. A careful leader extremely rarely pursuits when the enemies are just pulling back, but higher when they are retreating or even fleeing. This may cause him to miss some good opportunities but instead save him from hastened descicions that may lead to serious losses, such as a pursuit of a too strong enemy that turns into a trap.

The possible values are:

Command control

Command Control is very important in Civil. CC determines how well a unit is in touch with its ccommanding unit, i.e. superior leader. A unit that has a good link to its commanding unit receives orders faster and can thus faster react to the orders given by the player. A unit with a bad command control will recieve orders much slower and in extreme cases may not receive them at all.

Command control is determined by the distance to the commanding unit. A short distance means that orders can be sent to the unit faster. It is thus important to make sure that units always stay in within a suitable distance from its commanding unit, and not break up for instance regiments into companies spread out all over the map.

In future versions of the game CC may be modelled more accurately considering the battlefield status. A unit that would be surrounded by enemies and have all routes cut off to the commanding unit would of course not be in command control, and thus react totally depending on its leader.

Unit states

Each unit is always in a certain state. The state affects what the unit can currently do an how it reacts on different events. The state of an unit is changed by giving it various orders. The state is not directly for a unit, but is set indirectly by issuing various orders. All types of units can not enter all possible states.


This state is the resting-state for any unit. It lets the unit rest and regain strength and reduce fatigue. Units will also get medical treatment thus reducing the number of wounded men. Generally increases morale. The longer a unit rests the better the effect. A very short rest has no effect.

Applies to: all units.


This state means that the unit is in normal combat mode and ready to perform attacks, assaults and defend against enemy actions. A unit in this state may move normally, but movement is more expensive than for the Column state, as the unit moves with all men ready for combat at any time, and fatigue is increased faster.

Applies to: infantry.


This state is used when a unit is moved a long distance, and when enemy actions are not expected. The men are arranged in a column-mode and can efficiently use roads and paths, which makes movement for infantry cheapes in this state. The unit is however very vulnerable for attacks, as it does not maintain a high combat-readiness. Fatigue is not gained as fast as when moving in normal state.

Applies to: infantry.

Dug in

This state is the ultimate defensive state. The unit will prepare good defensive entrenchments and prepare for enemy attacks. It is very expensive to enter this state, and it generally takes a a lot of time, while it is quite cheap to leave this state for the 'normal' state of the unit. Artillery in this state may fire normally, and is better protected from enemy artillery fire.

Applies to: all units.


This state is used when moving artillery. The guns are assembled in special carriers and horses are made to pull them. It is quite expensive to limber artillery, but moving in this state is as cheap as moving infantry in column mode. Artillery is very vulnerable to attacks in this state, and if the attack is close-range, i.e. comes from a neighbor hex and is followed by assault, the artillery basically defends as a weak infantry-unit. It will try to unlimber guns and use them for defense if attacked, but this depends on the skills of the men and the leader, the morale and also fatigue.

Applies to: artillery.


This state is the standard firing state for artillery. The guns are ready to fire and the men are ready for combat. The unit may move while unlimbered, but it is very expensive, as the guns are basically pulled by the men themselves.

Applies to: artillery.


This state is the normal state for cavalry. This state is used when moving the units, as well as attacking. Cavalry is the only unit that is most efficient in attacking in its standard movement state. Other units may only attack at greatly reduced strength when in some movement state.

Applies to: Cavalry


This state is used by cavalry when defending against attackers. Cavalry may move while dismounted, but there is generally no point in doing so, as mounting is cheap for cavalry, and moving when mounted is much faster.

Applies to: Cavalry


This state is entered when a unit retreats and the skill of the leaders and the unit is not enough to keep the unit retreating in an orderly manner. The morale is higher than for routing units, the men just are a bit disordered. Usually quite simple to sort out. Disordered unit have a defensive penalty when attacked and may not perform most missions, such as attacks. Units recover from disorderness by rallying.

Applies to: all units.


A retreating unit will back away from the enemy in a somewhat ordered fashion. A retreating state may be entered by manually ordering the unit to retreat, or if it is forced to retreat due to enemy attacks. Depending on the rally skill of the leader it may take a while before a retreating is restored to normal. A forced retreat often means that the unit has suffered more severe losses than when manually ordered to retreat, thus it will take longer for units on forced retreat to rally.

Applies to: all units.


The ultimate state of disorderedness. The unit is fleeing from the attacker. Requires leader to rally the unit, and this may not always succeed. The unit needs to get its morale up, maybe rest for a while to regain it.

Applies to: all units.


This section describes the organizational layout of the troops in civil, the normal sizes, types of leaders an so on. The definition "organization" in this context means the normal historical hierarchical military organizations such as companies, regiments, brigades, divisions, corps and armies. These are partially included in civil to make it more meaningful so timulate command control, leader influence and command delays.

The actual "seen" units on the map are always companies. Some companies can contain the needed organizational leaders for higher organizations too. So there can be a company that has the command for a regiment or brigade, but still show up only as a single company. These units are worthwile targets, as killing or capturing the important commanders disrupts the entire organization. A lost commander in a regiment will be replaced, but usually with a commander of lower rank, and often also of worse quality. Companies with commanders for higher organizations should therefore be protected from heavy casualities, and should be kept near the center of the organization they command, in order to minimize the distance to all other suborganizations in its command.

Seen as a graph the command structure builds up a tree with the root in the highest commander on the battlefield (such as a division commander) and spreading out to lower organizations. The sections below will describe the normal organizations found on the battle field and their characteristics.


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